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"Education is the key to unlock the golden door of freedom."

George Washington Carver


Reproductive efficiency is one of the most important factors affecting profitability in sheep and goat enterprises, though optimal reproductive level varies by production environment and resource availability. On this page, links pertaining to sheep and goat reproduction are arranged alphabetically by subject category: accelerated lambing/kidding, artificial insemination, breeding ewe lambs and doelings, breeding soundness, estrus synchronization, ewe/doe management, flushing, general information, heat detection, libido, management, out-of-season lambing/kidding, parturition, pregnancy diagnosis, ram and buck effect, ram/buck management, reproduction in the female, reproduction in the male, and reproductive technologies.

Accelerated lambing/kidding

Accelerated lambing - Manitoba, Canada
Accelerated lambing and out-of-season breeding with hair sheep
[PDF] Accelerated lambing system - R&D Brief NZ
[PDF] Ewe fertility in the STAR accelerated lambing system
[PDF] Fertility of ewe lambs maintained indoors...accelerated
[PDF] Joining three times in two years - Australian Wool Innovation
STAR management @ Cornell University

Artificial insemination

[PDF] AI for sheep using frozen-thawed semen - Teagasc
All about AI - Dairy Goat Journal
Artificial insemination - GoatWorld
Artificial insemination for goats - South African Boer Goats
Artificial insemination of goats - Alabama CES
Artificial insemination in the Boer goat -
[PDF] Artificial insemination of dairy goats - New Mexico State University
[PDF] The history of artificial insemination
[PDF] Improving the success rate of AI of sheep - R&D Briefs NZ
[PPT] Lapaoscopic artificial insemination - University of Missouri
Laparoscopic artificial insemination: a means to improve genetics
Preparation for LAI - SuperSire Ltd.

New ultrasound and AI techniques improve sheep breeding
[PPT] Transcervical AI: sheep - University of Missouri
Vaginal AI FAQs - Jager Icelandics
[YouTube] Sheep vaginal artificial insemination technique
Ten reasons why I prefer VAI over LAI - Jager Icelandics
[PDF] Use of exogenous oxytocin in non-surgical AI of BB sheep

Breeding ewe lambs and doelings

Age at first joining sheep - Western Australia. | PDF
Breeding and lambing out ewe lambs - Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3
[WORD] Breeding ewe lambs - University of Wisconsin
[PDF] Breeding from ewe lambs - EBLEX UK
Breeding replacement ewe lambs - Illini SheepNet/Meat GoatNet
[PDF] Ewe lamb nutrition and ewe productivity - University of Wisconsin
Joining maiden Merino ewes - Queensland, Australia
[PDF] Maximising ewe hogget performance - No. Past. Ext. NZ
[PDF] Successful ewe lamb development, breeding, and lambing
[PDF] A study of breeding ewe lambs (from 1930s) - J. Anim. Sci.
To breed or not to breed: breeding ewe lambs and doe kids by Susan Schoenian

Breeding soundness

Billy soundness - Penn State Home Study Course
[PDF] Breeding soundness examination of rams - Utah State University
[PDF] Breeding soundness examinations of rams and bucks - Purdue University
[PDF] Breeding soundness exam rams - Pipestone Vet Clinic
Breeding soundness examination - Purdue University
[PDF] Breeding soundness in rams: how to do it - Utah State University
Fertility testing of rams - NSW, Australia | PDF
[PDF] Fertility testing rams increases profits - Oklahoma State University
[PDF] Ram breeding soundness evaluation (BSE) - Navajo Sheep Project
Ram breeding soundness examination - Louisiana State University
[PDF] Use of scrotal circumference tape - Navajo Sheep Project

Estrus synchronization

Control of ovarian activity - University of Guelph
[PDF] Current concepts in synchronization of estrus... - J. Anim. Sci.
Effect of melatonin and synchronization of estrus... Barbados
Estrus synchronization and embryo transfer - GoatWorld
Estrus synchronization outline - University of Wisconsin
[PDF] Estrus synchronization with MAP ... in goats - Pakistan Vet J.
Hormonal control of estrus - Merck Veterinary Manual
[PDF] Hormonal control of ewe reproduction - University of Wisconsin
[PDF] Recent advances in the control of goat reproduction - CIHEAM
[PDF] Synchronization of ewes with nortestomet implants - Okla. State
[PDF] An update on estrus synchronization in goats - J. Anim. Sci.

Ewe /doe management

[PDF] A beginner's guide to breeding your goat - GoatSouce
[PDF] Ewes in better body condition at joining conceive more lambs
[PDF] Fat scores of ewes at joining: the benefits of optimal nutrition
[PDF] Managing ewes for joining - Sheep CRC
[PDF] Maximizing ewe performance - No. Pastoral Ext. NZ
Reproduction: managing my ewe flock - Sheep CRC
[PDF] Target ewe fertility for better returns - EBLEX UK


[PDF] Effect of flushing hair sheep ewes... - U.S. Virgin Islands
[PDF] Effect of flushing on ovulation rate - R&D Brief NZ
Effects of flushing with two energy levels on goat repro. perf.
[PDF] Effect of new regime of nutritional flushing... - Global Vet
[PDF] Flushing (meat goats) - Cornell University
[PDF] Flushing does for the breeding season... - Sweetlix®
[PDF] Flushing ewes - Oregon State University
[PDF] Flushing ewes - Penn State Home Study Course
Flushing nannies - Penn State Home study course
Flushing the ewe flock: is it beneficial? - Ontario, Canada
[WORD] Nutritional flushing of small ruminants - Washington State University

General information

Altering reproductive processes
Animal reproduction
Behavior and mating habits of goats - Onion Creek Ranch
[PDF] Biology of reproduction of goats - Alabama CES
[ANIMATION] The biology of the goat: reproduction
Goat reproduction - Langston University | PDF
Goat reproduction - LifeStyle Block NZ
[PPT] Goat reproduction - Washington State University
[IMAGES] Learning reproduction in farm animals - University Missouri
[PPSX] Meat goat reproduction - Oklahoma State University
Net reproduction rate - Queensland, Australia
Reproduction - Montana Farm Flock Sheep Production Handbook
[PDF] Reproduction in sheep and goats - Ethiopia SGPIP
Reproductive physiology - Merck Veterinary Manual
[PDF] Sheep and goat management in Alberta: reproduction
Sheep and their sex life - Purdue University
Sheep reproduction - LifeStyle Block NZ
[PDF] Successfully breeding goats - FAMU

Heat detection

[PDF] Estrus detection in farm animals - Purdue University
[PDF] Heat detection and breeding in meat goats - NCSU
Heat detection for hand breeding - Kinni's Mini's
Heat detection in meat goats - NCSU
[PDF] Tips for heat checking goats - Sweetlix®


Desire, ability, and stamina of rams - Queensland, Australia
[PDF] Evaluation of three-ram cohort serving capacity tests...
[PDF] Genetic correlation of ram sexual performance... - University of Nebraska
[PDF] Measures of libido and their relation to serving capacity - J. Ansc.
OSU researchers study "male-oriented" rams
[PDF] Ram mating behavior after long-term selection for repro rate
Ready to breed - Kinne's Mini's


Breeding management on pasture - Illini SheepNet and Meat GoatNet
[PDF] Breeding season management - Iowa State University
Controlled breeding season management for meat goats - Alabama CES
Evaluation and preparation of the meat goat breeding herd - NCSU
[PDF] Joining management - Australia Wool Innovation
Reproductive Management of the ewe flock and ram - Purdue Univrsity
[PDF] An intro to repro management of fibre and meat goats - Victoria, Australia
[PDF] Reproductive management of a sheep and goat enterprise - SA
[PDF] Reproductive management of sheep and goats - Alabama CES
Reproductive management of the meat goat - GoatWorld
Tips for a successful breeding season - Virginia Tech

Out-of-season breeding

[PDF] A breeding program for a fall lambing program - Oklahoma State
Effect of ewe breed on fall lambing performance - SDSU
How do I get fall born lambs from my sheep flock? - Ohio Sheep Team
[PDF] Influence of MGA and PG600 on out-of-season... - Iowa State
[PDF] Lambing and kidding in the fall - by Dr. Dahlia O'Brien
Out-of-season breeding alternatives for sheep - Ontario, Canada
Out-of-season breeding using artificial lighting - GoatGal
[PDF] Repro performance of ewes mated in the spring ...nutr. suppl.
[PDF] Response to selection for fertility in a fall-lambing flock - J. Ansc.
[PDF] Use of melengestrol acetate-based treatments... - J. Anim. Sci.
Using MGA to enhance out-of-season breeding - Ontario, Canada


[PDF] Effect of relaxin on parturition in ruminants - Iowa State University
[PDF] Ewe and lamb behavior at parturition in prolific and non-prolific sheep
[PDF] Induction of parturition in farm animals (1974) - J. Anim. Sci.
[PDF] Lambing and kidding process and providing assistance - Ethiopia SGPIP
The lambing process: Sheep 201 by Susan Schoenian
Life cycle considerations: parturition - Purdue lecture notes
[PDF] Parturition in livestock - Purdue University

Pregnancy diagnosis

Accuracy of ultrasonography in early pregnancy diagnosis in the ewe
Pregnancy diagnosis - Univrsity of Wyoming
Pregnancy diagnosis techniques - Kinne's Mini's
Scanning $en$e - Ontario, Canada
Sheep pregnancy scanning: management tips - Ontario, Canada
Sheep pregnancy testing by ultrasound - University of Missouri
Value of pregnancy scanning - Sheep CRC
[PDF] Why diagnose the number of lambs in ewes? - Western Australia

Ram/buck effect

Better breeding with teaser ram use - Alberta, Canada
[PDF] Effect of ram preexposure...summer breeding - J. Anim. Sci.
Ram vasectomy photos - University of Guelph
[THESIS] Reproductive responses of anestrus ewes to the intro of rams
Sheep breeding: the ram effect - Queensland, Australia
[PDF] The teaser ram effect - Pipestone Vet Clinic
[PDF] Teasing ewes for early breeding - Wesern Australia

Ram/buck management

Buck housing and management - Onion Creek Ranch
General ram management - Queensland, Australia
Management of rams - Purdue University
Management of rams and bucks - InfoVets
[PDF] Preparing bucks for breeding - Sweetlix®
Preparing bucks for the breeding season -
[PPT] Ram management - SDSU
Suggestions for ram management - Lavender Fleece
Taking care of your stud ram, before, after... - Illini SheepNet

Reproduction in the female

[PDF] Breeding season and aspects of reproduction female goats
The estrus cycle in does - Alabama CES
Ewe reproductive tract - Queensland, Australia
[PDF] Find out more about hogget oestrus - R&D Brief NZ
[PDF] Improving reproductive performance of the ewe - Utah State University
Oestrus, ovulation, fertilisation, and embryo mortality - Queensland, Aust.
Reproductive cycle of does - Australian Goat Notes
Reproductive cyclicity in the female - University of Wisconsin lecture notes
Reproduction in the ewe: Sheep 201 by Susan Schoenian
Seasonal breeding in sheep - University of Wisconsin

Reproduction in the male

Fertility and sterility in the buck - Kinne's Mini's
[PDF] Functional reproductive anatomy of the male - TAMU
Ram fertility - Moredun Foundation
Ram reproductive tract - Queensland, Australia
Reproduction and the ram - Woolshed 1 blog
Reproduction in the ram: Sheep 201 by Susan Schoenian
Sperm production in rams - Queensland, Australia
Theriogenology of the male - LSU

Reproductive technologies

Advanced caprine reproduction methods & techniques | PDF
[PDF] Biotechnological advances in goat reproduction - J. Anim. Sci.
Boer goat embryo transfer -
[PDF] Current status and future prospects for repro tech...
Embryo transfer explained - SR Genetics
Embryo transfer in farm animals - Merck Veterinary Manual
[PDF] Multiple ovulation and embryo transfer in goats

There's a baby in there!
      Here comes the baby!