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"Education is the key to unlock the golden door of freedom."

George Washington Carver

Metabolic/nutritional diseases

Many diseases can affect the digestive system of sheep and goats. Many are nutritionally-related. Nutrient deficiencies, excesses, and imbalances can cause many disease conditions or predispose animals to other problems. On this page, links are arranged alphabetically by disease or disorder: acidosis, bloat, copper deficiency, copper toxicity, diarrhea, enterotoxemia, general, goiter, grass tetany, indigestion, milk fever, polioencephalomalacia, selenium (and/or vitamin E) deficiency, including white muscle disease, selenium toxicity, pregnancy toxemia, urinary calculi, and (other) vitamin and mineral deficiencies and toxicities.

Acidiosis (grain overload)

[PDF] Abomasal bloat - Meat & Wool New Zealand
[PDF] Acid indigestion - Alberta, Canada
[PDF] Acidosis: causes, prevention, and treatment - NSW, Australia
[PDF] Acidosis in goats - Sweetlix®
Acute and subacute ruminal acidosis - Utah State University
[AuthorStream] Acute carbohydrate engorgement of ruminants
Barley poisoning - alnorthumbria vet group (UK)
Grain overload - Merck Vet Manual | Sub-acute ruminal acidosis
[PDF] Grain overload - National Goat Handbook
[PDF] Grain poisoning - Livestock Central Australia
Grain poisoning of cattle and sheep - NSW, Australia | PDF
How to prevent acidosis in goats -
Ruminal acidosis - Onion Creek Farm
[PDF] Rumen acidosis or grain poisoning - CattleKing Ag Services
[PDF] Ruminal acidosis: understanding, prevention, and treatment
[PDF] Use caution when changing sheep rations - Alberta, Canada


[PDF] Artificial lamb rearing: managing abomasal bloat - Beef+Lamb NZ
[PDF] Beware of bloat! - Sweetlix®
[PDF] Bloat - Alaska Livestock Series
Bloat - InfoVets
Bloat - Lavender Fleece
Bloat - NSW, Australia | PDF
Bloat - Queensland, Australia
[PDF] Bloat in cattle and sheep - Can. J. Comparative Med.
Bloat in goats -
Bloat in goats - Kinne's Mini's
[PDF] Bloat in ruminants (goats) - University of Florida
[PDF] Bloat in sheep and goats - Ethiopia Sheep/Goat Project
Bloat on legume pastures - Manitoba Forage Council
[PDF] Bloat on legume pastures - University of Delaware
Bloat (ruminal tympany) - Merck Veterinary Manual
In depth article on goat bloat -
Managing sheep to prevent bloat - Sheep! Magazine
[PDF] Pasture bloat: prevention and treatment - Beef Cattle Handbook
Preventing bloat on pasture - University of Wisconsin
Preventing pasture bloat in sheep - Purdue University
Rumen mobility and bloat diagnosis - Kinne's Mini's
Ruminal tympany (bloat) - Colorado State University
[Scribd] Tympany in ruminants by Ali Sadiek Assiut Univesity

Copper -related


Basic information on copper deficiency in goats in So. California
Copper deficiency and toxicity in goats - Onion Creek Ranch
[PDF] Copper deficiency in Creole goat kids - Repro. Nutr. Dev.
Copper deficiency in Pygmy goats - Kinne's Mini's
[PDF] Copper deficiency in sheep and cattle - Western Australia
[PDF] Goat health: copper deficiency - NSW, Australia
"Silvering" in fleeces: an explanation - Hebridean Sheep Society
[VIDEOS] Swayback - Animax Vet Tech
[PDF] Swayback (enzootic ataxia) in Alberta lambs
Treatment of copper deficiency in sheep and cattle - Pharmplex


Chronic copper poisoning in sheep - Ontario, Canada
Control of copper poisoning in sheep - Ireland
Copper poisoning in sheep - NADIS UK | PDF
Copper Poisoning in a Flock of Sheep. Copper Excretion Patterns
Copper poisoning - MLC UK
Copper poisoning ruminants - Moredun Research Institute
Copper toxicity - Daneke Club Lambs
[PDF] Copper toxicity - LSU Ag Center
[PDF] Copper toxicity in confinement-housed ram lambs - Can. Vet J.
Copper toxicity in sheep - Purdue University
Copper toxicity in sheep - Salt Institute
[PDF] Copper toxicity in sheep is on the rise in Kansas and Nebraksa
[PDF] OGFA Ad hoc committee on copper toxicity in sheep
Revisiting copper toxicity in sheep ... by Susan Schoenian
What diseases are associated with copper? - Serious Goats

Diarrhea (scours)

[PDF] Calf scours simplified - Utah State University
[PDF] Causes of scouring amongst goats - Boer Goat Assoc. of Australia
Diarrhea - Onion Creek Ranch
Diarrhea (neonatal) - GoatWisdom
Diarrhea in sheep - LifeStyle Block NZ
Diarrhea (scours) in small ruminants by Susan Schoenian
[PDF] Diarrheal diseases - National Goat Handbook (scroll down menu)
Diarrhea: treat the disease, not the symptom -
Goat diarrhea signs - Jack & Anita Maudlin's Boer Goats
Scouring (diarrhea) in baby goats -
Scouring in hand-reared animals - Lifestyle Block NZ
[PDF] Scours and ill thrift in growing lambs - Dalehead Vets UK
Watery mouth (e. coli scours) -- go to lamb and kid diseases page.
Yersiniosis - NSW, Australia
Yersiniosis in sheep/goats - Tasmania, Australia
Young Ruminant Diarrhea - GoatConnection

Enterotoxemia (overeating disease)

Go to bacterial diseases page.


Ewe nutrition and metabolic diseases - NADIS UK | PDF
Metabolic and nutritional diseases - National Goat Handbook
Metabolic and nutrition diseases of goats - Ontario, Canada
[PDF] Nutritional causes of reproductive losses - National Goat Handbook
[PDF] Nutritional diseases of sheep - Utah State University
Nutritional effects on sheep health - Lincoln University
Problems that can be frequently related to nutrition - Serious Goats
Raising rumens -
[Class Notes] Rumen metabolic disease - Purdue University

Goiter (iodine deficiency)

Gioter and iodine deficiency - Tasmania, Australia
Goiter in goats - Manitoba, Canada
Iodine deficiency in ruminants - Ballance New Zealand
[PDF] Iodine deficiency in sheep - Salt Institute

Milk goiter

Milk goiter in goat kids - Goat Biology recommended
Milk neck / milk goiter - Fias Co Farm
Non-neoplastic enlargement of the throid gland - Merck Vet Manual

Grass tetany

[PDF] Controlling grass tetany in livestock - New Mexico State University
Grass tetany by Andre Voisin | In sheep
[PDF] Grass tetany: causes and prevention - Salt Institute
[PDF] Grass tetany and its prevention - Sweetlix®
Grass tetany / grass staggers - Tasmania, Australia
Grass tetany in ruminants FAQ's - Alberta, Canada
How to reduce the potential for grass tetany - West Virginia University
Hypomagnesemic tetany in adult cattle and sheep - Merck Veterinary Manual
Magnesium deficiency - Organic Vet
[PDF] Role of sodium deficiency and excess nitrates in grass tetany
[PDF] Salt reduces grass tetany - Salt Institute

Indigestion (simple)

Simple indigestion (mild dietary indigestion) - Merck Veterinary Manual
[PDF] Simple indigestion - National Goat Handbook (scroll down menu)

Milk fever (hypocalcemia)

Hypocalcemia - Organic Vet
Hypocalcaemia in sheep (milk fever) - Tasmania, Australia
[PDF] Hypocalcemia vs. pregnancy toxemia - Best Wool/Best Lamb
Milk fever strikes by Susan Schoenian
Milk fever - Onion Creek Ranch
Milk fever (hypocalcamia) - Fias Co Farm
More feedback on hypocalcemia in goats - GoatWorld
Parturient paresis in sheep and goats - Merck Veterinary Manual
Pregnancy toxemia and hypocalcemia - Queensland, Australia


[PDF] Case report of encephalopathy in goats - Arch. Razi Ins.
Goat polio or listeriosis? - Onion Creek Ranch
Health management: polioencephalomalacia - Alberta, Canada
Our experience with polioencephalomalacia - U-say Ranch
PEM and molasses: the real story - Sweetlix®
Polio (goat polio) - South African Boer Goats

[PDF] Polioencephalomalacia - Large Animal Vet Rounds
Polioencephalomalacia (PEN or CCN) - Organic Vet
Polioencephalomalacia: Introduction - Merck Veterinary Manual
[PDF] Polioencephalomalacia - Large Animal Vet Rounds
Polioencephalomalacia - Purdue University class project
Polioencephalomalaica (goat polio) - Alabama Coop. Extension | PDF
Polioencephalomalacia - J. Anim. Sci.
Polio associated with feed corn gluten - Southern States
[PDF] Polioencephalomalacia in ruminants in Brazil - BJVP
[PDF] Relationship between sulfer and polio (PEM) - South Dak. St. Univ.
[WORD] Sulfur-induced polioencephalomalacia - University of Missouri

Pregnancy toxemia (ketosis)

Gestational toxemia in sheep - GoatConnection
[PDF] Goat health: pregnancy toxemia - NSW, Australia
Ketosis and pregnancy toxemia - Fias Co Farm
[PDF] Ketosis or pregnancy toxemia in the doe - Sweetlix®
[PDF] Ketosis or pregnancy toxemia in the ewe - Sweetlix®
[PDF] Pregnancy disease: a flock perspective - Michigan State University
[PDF] Pregnancy ketosis - Pipestone Vet Clinic
[PDF] Pregnancy toxemia - Navajo Sheep Project
[PDF] Pregnancy toxemia and ketosis - Champaign Co. Goat Council
[PDF] Pregnancy toxemia in goats - Alabama Coop. Extension
Pregnancy toxemia (twin lamb disease) - Western Australia
[PDF] Pregnancy toxemia and hypocalcemia of ewes - Western Australia
Pregnancy toxemia and ketosis in goats - Western Australia
Pregnancy toxemia in ewes and does by Susan Schoenian
Pregnancy toxemia (ketosis) in does and ewes - Lincoln University

Selenium (and vitamin E)-related


Nutritional myopathy of calves and lambs - Merck Vet Manual
Nutritional muscular dystrophy of goats - Caprine Classic Dairy Goats
[PDF] Selenium and vitamin E deficiencies of Livestock - Vigortone
[PDF] Selenium deficiency in sheep - NSW, Australia
Selenium deficiency and toxicity - Onion Creek Ranch
Selenium-related disorders in Washington livestock
Vitamin E and selenium concentrations in ewes and lambs
Vitamin E and Selenium deficiency - Organic Vet
Weak kid (white muscle disease) - Clear Creek Farms
White muscle disease - Maudlin's Boer Goats
[PDF] White muscle disease - Pipestone Vet Clinic
White muscle disease - Purdue University class project
White muscle disease in sheep and goats by Susan Schoenian


[PDF] Naturally-occurring acute selenium toxicosis in sheep
[PDF] Selenium poisoning in livestock - NWISRL publications
Selenium poisoning of livestock - Queensland, Australia
Selenium toxicity in farm animals: treatment and prevention
Selenium toxicosis - Merck Veterinary Manual

Urinary calculi (urolithiasis, water belly)

Effects of ammonium chloride supplementation in goats - Bayer
[PDF] Incidence of urinary calculi in goats fed a high P diet - Japan
[PDF] Urinary blockage in llamas and alpacas - Penn State University
Urinary calculi - Bar None Meat Goats
[PDF] Urinary calculi in cattle and sheep - University of Nebraska (historical)
Urinary calculi in goats - Onion Creek Ranch
Urinary calculi in growing lambs - Ontario, Canada
Urinary calculi in sheep and goats by Susan Schoenian
Urinary calculi in wether lambs/kids - Texas A&M University
[PDF] Urinary calculi (water belly) - Iowa State University
Urinary calculi - National Pygmy Goat Association
[PDF] Urinary stones in goats - Sweetlix™
Urinary calculi in wether lambs/kids - Colorado St. University | PDF
Urinary calculi: the "buck" killer - Maudlin's Boer Goats
Urinary stones - Fias Co Farm
Urolithiasis in Pygmy goats - Kinne's Mini's
Urolithiasis in ruminants - Merck Veterinary Manual
Urolithiasis in small ruminants - GoatConnection

(other) Vitamin and mineral deficiencies

Cobalt - Vitamin B-12 deficience - Daneke Club Lambs
[PDF] Detection and treatment of mineral nutrition problems - ACAIR
Iodine deficiency in sheep - Salt Institute
[PDF] Mineral deficiencies in livestock - Fort Lewis College (CO)
Minerals and mineral deficiences - Smallstock in Development
Trace element deficiency in sheep - NADIS UK | PDF
[PDF] Trace element deficiencies in sheep and cattle - Western Australia
Vitamin and mineral deficiencies in goats - Onion Creek Ranch
[PDF] Vitamin deficiences in livestock - Fort Lewis College (CO)
[PDF] Vitamin B-12 deficiency in sheep and cattle
[PDF] Vitamin E - Pipestone Vet Clinic

(other) Vitamin and mineral toxicities

[PDF] Lead poisoning in livestock - NSW, Australia
Lead poisoning in livestock - Queensland Australia

Milk fever
 A Katahdin ewe stricken with milk fever.